Species

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Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758

Vespa Crabro Linnaeus, 1758:572, sex not indicated. Linnaeus, 1758Linnaeus, C.1758 Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Tomus I. Editio Decima Reformata. [4] + [5] + 823 + [1] p.:572,Europa; Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:47, Holotype ♀ (Linnaean Society). - Lewis, 1897Lewis, B.S.1897 Vespinae of the United States and Canada. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 24 (2):169-192, 1 pl. (distribution); Mauss & Treiber, 1994Mauss, V. & R. Treiber1994 Bestimmungsschlüssel für die Faltenwespen (Hymenoptera: Masarinae, Polistinae, Vespinae) der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. DJN, Hamburg. 1-53.:45 (listed); Schmid-Egger et al., 1995Schmid-Egger, C., S. Risch & O. Niehuis1995 Die Wildbienen und Wespen in Rheinland-Pfalz (Hymenoptera, Aculeata). Verbreitung, Ökologie und Gefährdungssituation. Fauna Flora Rheinland-Pfalz Beiheft 16:1-296.:232 (Nistweise [in oberirdischen Hohlräumen.]); Fowles, A.P., 1996Fowles, A.P.1996 A provisional checklist of the invertebrates recorded from Wales. 2. Aculeate wasps, bees and ants (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). 1-57. (distribution); Smissen, 2001Smissen, J. van der2001 Die Wildbienen und Wespen Schleswig-Holsteins - Rote Liste. Landesamt für Natur und Umwelt des Landes Schleswig-Holsteins, Flintbek. 1-183.:55 (Nistweise [H, G, V,]); Oehlke, J., 2001Oehlke, J.2001 Vespidae. In: Dathe, H., A. Taeger & S.M. Blank (Ed.). Verzeichnis der Hautflügler Deutschlands (Entomofauna Germanica, Band 4). 129-133. (distribution), 130 (distribution); Bieri, 2002Bieri, S.2002 Bienen und Wespen des Fürstentums Liechtenstein. 1-160. (distribution); Mauss & Treiber, 2004Mauss, V. & R. Treiber2004 Bestimmungsschlüssel für die Faltenwespen (Hymenoptera: Masarinae, Polistinae, Vespinae) der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Deutscher Jugendbund für Naturbeobachtung, Hamburg. 1-53.:45 (listed); Dvorak & Straka, 2007Dvorak, L. & J. Straka2007 Vespoidea: Vespidae (vosovití). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae Supplementum 11:171-189. (distribution); Landolt et al., 2010Landolt, P.J., J.M. Sierra, T.R. Unruh & R.S. Zack2010 A new species of Vespula, and first record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) from Guatemala, Central America. Zootaxa 2629:61-68. (distribution).
Vespa vexator Harris, 1776:128, Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:47, Holotype ♀, destroyed. - Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:47 ( listed as synonym of Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758).
Vespa crabro major Retzius, 1783:63, Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:47, Type unknown. - Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:47 ( listed as synonym of Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758).
Vespa crabroniformis Smith, 1852:40, Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:47, Syntype ♂, ♀ (London). - Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:47 ( listed as synonym of Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758).
Vespa crabro borealis Radoszkowski, 1863:128, Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:47, Syntype ♂, ♀, type lost?. - Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:47 ( listed as synonym of Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758).
Vespa crabro anglica Gribodo, 1892:242, Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:47, Syntype ♀♀ (Genova). - Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:47 ( listed as synonym of Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758).
Vespa oberthuri du Buysson, 1902:140, Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:47, Lectotype cf (Paris). - Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:47 ( listed as synonym of Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758).
Vespa flavofasciata Cameron, 1903:280, Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:47, Holotype ♀ (London). - Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:47 ( listed as synonym of Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758).
Vespa crabro tartarea du Buysson, 1905:6506, Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:48, Holotype ♀ (Budapest). - Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:48 ( listed as synonym of Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758).
Vespa crabro altaica Pérez, 1910:5, Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:48, Holotype ♀ (Paris). - Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:48 ( listed as synonym of Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758).
Vespa crabro caspica Pérez, 1910:6, Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:48, Holotype ♀ (Paris). - Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:48 ( listed as synonym of Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758).
Vespa crabro nigra Birula, 1925:55, Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:48, Syntypes (St. Petersburg). - Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:48 ( listed as synonym of Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758).
Vespa crabro meridionalis Birula, 1925:55, Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:48, Syntypes ? (St. Petersburg). - Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:48 ( listed as synonym of Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758).
Vespa crabro chinensis Birula, 1925:55, Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:48, Syntypes ? (St. Petersburg). - Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:48 ( listed as synonym of Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758).
Vespa crabro birulai Bequaert, 1931:105 - Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:48 ( listed as synonym of Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758).
Vespa crabro gribodoi Bequaert, 1931:105 - Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:48 ( listed as synonym of Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758).
- As Hylaeus signatus: - Kuhlmann, Kuhlmann, M. in lit. :. (listed); Pagliano, 1995Pagliano, G.1995 Hymenoptera Apoidea. In: Minelli A., Ruffo S. & La Posta S. (Ed.). Checklist delle specie della fauna italiana. 1-25. (distribution); Schwarz et al., 1996Schwarz, M., F. Gusenleitner, P. Westrich & H. Dathe1996 Katalog der Bienen Österreichs, Deutschlands und der Schweiz (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Entomofauna Suppl. 8:1-398. (distribution), 17 (listed); Amiet, F. et al., 1999Amiet, F., A. Müller & R. Neumeyer1999 Fauna Helvetica. Apidae 2. Colletes, Dufourea, Hylaeus, Nomia, Nomioides, Rhophitoides, Rophites, Sphecodes, Systropha. 1-219.:133 (listed); Banaszak, 2000Banaszak, J.2000 A checklist of the bee species (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) of Poland with remarks on their taxonomy and zoogeography: revised version. Fragmenta Faunistica 43 (14):135-193. (distribution); Dathe, H.H., 2001Dathe, H.H.2001 Apidae. In: Dathe, H., A. Taeger & S.M. Blank (Ed.). Verzeichnis der Hautflügler Deutschlands (Entomofauna Germanica, Band 4). 143-155. (distribution), 149 (distribution); Bieri, 2002Bieri, S.2002 Bienen und Wespen des Fürstentums Liechtenstein. 1-160. (distribution); Smit, J.T. & J. Smit, 2003Smit, J.T. & J. Smit2003 Hylaeus signatus (Panzer, 1798) new for the fauna of Madeira, with notes on ist feeding behaviour (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Entomofauna 24 (11):165-168. (distribution); Straka et al., 2007Straka, J., P. Bogusch & A. Pridal2007 Apoidea: Apiformes (včely). In: Bogusch, P., J. Straka & P. Kment (Ed.). Annotated checklist of the Aculeata (Hymenoptera) of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. 241-299. (distribution); Madsen H.B. & I. Calabuig, 2008Madsen H.B. & I. Calabuig2008 Kommenteret checkliste over Danmarks bier - Del 1: Colletidae. Ent. Medd. 76 (2):145-163. (distribution); Tomozei, B., 2008Tomozei, B.2008 Checklist of Bees of the genera Colletes Latreille 1930 and Hylaeus Fabricius 1793 of Romania (Hymenoptera: Apiformes: Colletidae). Faunistic Entomomology - Entomologie faunistique 61 (3):87-97. (distribution); Gogala, 2009Gogala, A.2009 Bee fauna of Slovenia: checklist of species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). . (distribution). - As Prosopis albinasata: - Schwarz et al., 1996Schwarz, M., F. Gusenleitner, P. Westrich & H. Dathe1996 Katalog der Bienen Österreichs, Deutschlands und der Schweiz (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Entomofauna Suppl. 8:1-398.:17 (listed). - As Prosopis pratensis nigrifacies: - Schwarz et al., 1996Schwarz, M., F. Gusenleitner, P. Westrich & H. Dathe1996 Katalog der Bienen Österreichs, Deutschlands und der Schweiz (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Entomofauna Suppl. 8:1-398.:17 (listed). - As Hylaeus signatus berlandi: - Ortiz-Sánchez, F.J., 2006Ortiz-Sánchez, F.J.2006 Lista preliminar de los Apoidea (Hymenoptera) de Andalucia (sur de la Penínscula Ibérica). Acta Granatense 4/5:17-39. (distribution). - As Prosopis berlandi: - Schwarz et al., 1996Schwarz, M., F. Gusenleitner, P. Westrich & H. Dathe1996 Katalog der Bienen Österreichs, Deutschlands und der Schweiz (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Entomofauna Suppl. 8:1-398.:17 (listed).
Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791:215, Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:47, Type unknown (destroyed). - Krombein, 1963Krombein, K.V.1963 Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. XVII. Annotated list of the wasps (Hymenoptera: Bethyloidea, Scolioidea, Vespoidea, Pompiloidea, Sphecoidea). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 76:255-280. (distribution); Krombein et al., 1979Krombein, K.V., P.D. Hurd, D.R. Smith & B.D. Burks1979 Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. 1199-2209. (distribution); Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:47 ( listed as synonym of Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758).
Vespa crabro vulgata Birula, 1925:100, Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:48, Syntypes ? (St. Petersburg). - Krombein et al., 1979Krombein, K.V., P.D. Hurd, D.R. Smith & B.D. Burks1979 Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. 1199-2209.:1518 ( listed as synonym of Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791); Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.:48 ( listed as synonym of Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758).

Common names

  •  Hornisse

Sponsorship

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Area distribution map

map of Vespa crabro     Linnaeus, 1758

Distribution

AZEAzerbaijan
(Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012 [as Vespa crabro caspica Pérez, 1910])
CAN-OntCanada - Ontario
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
CHNChina
(Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012 [as Vespa oberthuri du Buysson, 1902]; Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012 [as Vespa crabro chinensis Birula, 1925]; Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012 [as Vespa crabroniformis Smith, 1852])
CZECzech Republic
(Dvorak & Straka, 2007)
DEU-BaGermany - Bavaria
(Oehlke, J., 2001)
DEU-BBGermany - Brandenburg + Berlin
(Oehlke, J., 2001)
DEU-BWGermany - Baden-Württemberg
(Oehlke, J., 2001)
DEU-HeGermany - Hesse
(Oehlke, J., 2001)
DEU-LSBGermany - Lower Saxony + Bremen
(Oehlke, J., 2001)
DEU-MVGermany - Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
(Oehlke, J., 2001)
DEU-NRWGermany - North Rhine-Westphalia
(Oehlke, J., 2001)
DEU-RPSGermany - Rhineland-Palatinate + Saarland
(Oehlke, J., 2001)
DEU-SAGermany - Saxony-Anhalt
(Oehlke, J., 2001)
DEU-SHHGermany - Schleswig-Holstein + Hamburg
(Oehlke, J., 2001)
DEU-SxGermany - Saxony
(Oehlke, J., 2001)
DEU-ThGermany - Thuringia
(Oehlke, J., 2001)
FRAFrance
(Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012 [as Vespa pratensis Geoffroy in Fourcroy, 1785])
GBR-WaUnited Kingdom - Wales
(Fowles, A.P., 1996)
GTMGuatemala
(Landolt et al., 2010)
JPNJapan
(Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012 [as Vespa flavofasciata Cameron, 1903]; Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012 [as Vespa crabro tartarea du Buysson, 1905])
LIELiechtenstein
(Bieri, 2002)
RUS-SibRU - Siberia
(Kimsey & Carpenter, 2012 [as Vespa crabro nigra Birula, 1925])
SVKSlovakia (Slovak Republic)
(Dvorak & Straka, 2007)
USA-AlaUnited States - Alabama
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-ConUnited States - Connecticut
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-DelUnited States - Delaware
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-GeoUnited States - Georgia
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-IndUnited States - Indiana
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-KenUnited States - Kentucky
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-MarUnited States - Maryland
(Lewis, 1897; Krombein, 1963 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791]; Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-MasUnited States - Masachusettes
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-NeJUnited States - New Jersey
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-NeYUnited States - New York
(Lewis, 1897; Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-NoCUnited States - North Carolina
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-NoDUnited States - North Dakota
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-OhiUnited States - Ohio
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-PenUnited States - Pennsylvania
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-RhoUnited States - Rhode Island
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-SoCUnited States - South Carolina
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-SoDUnited States - South Dakota
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-TenUnited States - Tennessee
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-VirUnited States - Virginia
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-WDCUnited States - Washington D.C.
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-WeVUnited States - West Virginia
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])
USA-WisUnited States - Wisconsin
(Krombein et al., 1979 [as Vespa crabro germana Christ, 1791])

Literature

  • Amiet, F., A. Müller & R. Neumeyer1999 Fauna Helvetica. Apidae 2. Colletes, Dufourea, Hylaeus, Nomia, Nomioides, Rhophitoides, Rophites, Sphecodes, Systropha. 1-219.
  • Banaszak, J.2000 A checklist of the bee species (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) of Poland with remarks on their taxonomy and zoogeography: revised version. Fragmenta Faunistica 43 (14):135-193.
  • Bieri, S.2002 Bienen und Wespen des Fürstentums Liechtenstein. 1-160.
  • Dathe, H.H.2001 Apidae. In: Dathe, H., A. Taeger & S.M. Blank (Ed.). Verzeichnis der Hautflügler Deutschlands (Entomofauna Germanica, Band 4). 143-155.
  • Dvorak, L. & J. Straka2007 Vespoidea: Vespidae (vosovití). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae Supplementum 11:171-189.
  • Esser, Fuhrmann & Venne2010 Rote Liste und Gesamtartenliste der Wildbienen und Wespen (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Crabronidae, Sphecidae, Ampulicidae, Pompilidae, Vespidae, Tiphiidae, Sapygidae, Mutillidae, Chrysididae) Nordrhein-Westfalens. Ampulex 2:5-60.
  • Fabricius, J.C.1793 Entomologia Systematica emendata et aucta. Vol. 2. Christian Gottlieb Proft, Hafniae. viii + 519 pp.
  • Fowles, A.P.1996 A provisional checklist of the invertebrates recorded from Wales. 2. Aculeate wasps, bees and ants (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). 1-57.
  • Gogala, A.2009 Bee fauna of Slovenia: checklist of species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). .
  • Hansen, L.O., O.J. Lonnve & F. Odegaard2010 Hymenoptera. In: Kalas, J.A., A. Viken, S. Henriksen & S. Skjelseth (Ed.). The 2010 Norwegian Red List for Species. 331-345.
  • Kimsey, L.S. & J.M. Carpenter2012 The Vespinae of North America (Vespidae, Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 28:37-65.
  • Krombein, K.V.1963 Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. XVII. Annotated list of the wasps (Hymenoptera: Bethyloidea, Scolioidea, Vespoidea, Pompiloidea, Sphecoidea). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 76:255-280.
  • Krombein, K.V., P.D. Hurd, D.R. Smith & B.D. Burks1979 Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. 1199-2209.
  • Kuhlmann, M. in lit. :.
  • Landolt, P.J., J.M. Sierra, T.R. Unruh & R.S. Zack2010 A new species of Vespula, and first record of Vespa crabro L. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) from Guatemala, Central America. Zootaxa 2629:61-68.
  • Lewis, B.S.1897 Vespinae of the United States and Canada. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 24 (2):169-192, 1 pl.
  • Linnaeus, C.1758 Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae. Ed. 10, Vol. 1 Holmiae. :824 pp.
  • Linnaeus, C.1758 Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Tomus I. Editio Decima Reformata. [4] + [5] + 823 + [1] p.
  • Madsen H.B. & I. Calabuig2008 Kommenteret checkliste over Danmarks bier - Del 1: Colletidae. Ent. Medd. 76 (2):145-163.
  • Mauss, V. & R. Treiber1994 Bestimmungsschlüssel für die Faltenwespen (Hymenoptera: Masarinae, Polistinae, Vespinae) der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. DJN, Hamburg. 1-53.
  • Mauss, V. & R. Treiber2004 Bestimmungsschlüssel für die Faltenwespen (Hymenoptera: Masarinae, Polistinae, Vespinae) der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Deutscher Jugendbund für Naturbeobachtung, Hamburg. 1-53.
  • Oehlke, J.2001 Vespidae. In: Dathe, H., A. Taeger & S.M. Blank (Ed.). Verzeichnis der Hautflügler Deutschlands (Entomofauna Germanica, Band 4). 129-133.
  • Ortiz-Sánchez, F.J.2006 Lista preliminar de los Apoidea (Hymenoptera) de Andalucia (sur de la Penínscula Ibérica). Acta Granatense 4/5:17-39.
  • Pagliano, G.1995 Hymenoptera Apoidea. In: Minelli A., Ruffo S. & La Posta S. (Ed.). Checklist delle specie della fauna italiana. 1-25.
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