Names concept

The name concept of HymIS consists of four levels. The first level is build upon name combinations used in the literature by different authors. A name combination contains a genus, a first epithet, second epithet (only in very few cases a third epithet is applied) and an author. Each name combination is just a name without any circumscription, no information is added about validity, synonmy or even the rank of the taxon . Each name combination may be the original spelling from the first description of a species, an incorrect spelling, emendation, new combination, nomen dubium or another status. On the second level, name combinations belonging to the same original spelling are grouped together to a basionym. Each basionym may be a synonym or a valid species and the third level combines a valid species with its synonyms.

Each synonymy may be subjective and therefore the mapping to a valid name combination is always done for a reference. So the HymIS taxonomic backbone is just one reference among all others and each reference with taxonomic information is handled as a taxonomic concept. This is the fourth level of the HymIS name concept, by having the synonymy always connected to a reference.

In the next image an example is given with a spider hunting wasp. In this example the valid species name in the reference X is Agenioideus ciliatus (Lepeletier, 1845) having two synonyms, Pompilus ribiginicollis Costa, 1886 and Pompilus lichtensteini Tournier, 1889. Each of the synonym has two further name combinations, due to incorrect spelling and by combination with a different genus. The basionym of the valid species name is Pompilus ciliatus Lepeletier, 1845.

The next image shows the IDs of the different name combination within the HymIS-database. So each name combination is build actually on three IDs. The first ID is the unique comb-ID (blue) for each name combination. Each combination of genus and species name, incorrect spelling, emendation has its own unique comb-ID. All name combinations belonging to the same basionym (original spelling) get the same basionymID (comb-ID of the basionym) (red), independent if it is a synonym or a valid species. The basionym is not in dependence of a reference, it is treated as objectiv, because it is exactly the name published in the first description of a species. The third ID is the comb-ID of the name combination of the valid species (green) and this connection is in dependence to one reference, respectively a taxonomic concept. Different references (authors) may have different opinions about the synonymy of one species and so it is subjectiv. The database model shows how this information is stored in the database.